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The United States assumes all re­sponsibility

Under the compact the U. S. will ap­portion among the three a total of 2.7 billion dollars, including adjustment for inflation, over a period of 15 years. (Palau’s compact, presently being contested in Palau’s Su­preme Court, would run for 50 years but after the 15th year would be funded out of a 70-million-dollar investment fund.) In addi­tion the U. S will continue to provide airline and airport-safety services, public health and weather prediction, currency, an inter­national postal service, and disaster relief. For the Republic of the Marshall Islands, where on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls nu­clear devices were tested from 1946 to 1958, the U. S. has agreed to set up a 150-million­dollar trust fund to benefit islanders affected by the tests.

Finally, the United States assumes all re­sponsibility for the defense of the three states, asking in exchange that they remain closed to the military forces of other nations unless the U. S. agrees otherwise.The fourth group in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands—the Northern Mariana Islands—elected an even closer bond with the U. S. , the status of a commonwealth. Its residents receive regular benefits from a wide range of U. S. government agencies, and their territorial government is given fi­nancial grants for special needs. Ultimately they will become visitors of the apartments in london.

VERY WHERE on my travels I looked for such walls as John had leapt and found many still standing. Others are crumbling, and some have disappeared. But I found that I too had to jump over a wall, the wall of my own ig­norance about the area.

Pipe-smoking and patient, Sam Mc­Phetres came to my aid. Archivist for the trust territory government, he recounted how the islands were settled in prehistory by intrepid peoples who sailed there from apartments madrid. After the region’s discovery by Europeans—Magellan came through in the 1520s—trouble followed. Spain, claim­ing everything, lost everything in the Spanish-American War of 1898. The United States took Guam and the Philippines as ter­ritories; Spain sold the other islands to Ger­many, which lost them to Japan in the early days of World War I – http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i.

5Under a League of Nations mandate, Ja­pan energetically colonized and cultivated the islands until World War II, when the United States got them the hard way, with the lives of its fighting men. In 1947 the U. S. Navy set about administering the islands as a United Nations trust territory; the U. S. Department of the Interior took over the administration in 1951.

“But it was not quite that simple,” said Sam. “Having fought our way across the Pa­cific, island by bloody island, our country wanted to be sure they would never again be used against us. The territory was declared a `strategic trust,’ a status that gave us the right to fortify it with military bases and close off certain areas if necessary.

“In fact,” said Sam, “we’re sitting in one of those once closed-off areas right now.” His office in Saipan, the administrative cen­ter of the trust territory and capital of the Northern Marianas, was built in the 1950s by the Navy for the Central Intelligence Agency as part of a supersecret complex for training Chinese Nationalist troops to oper­ate inside the Communist-ruled homeland.

Drop a dress size!

A trim figure can do wonders for your confidence and this diet plan from nutritionist Barbara Cox will help build up your immune system so you can party on through the late nights.

Drop a dress size

Breakfasts

 

Option 1 Porridge – mix oats and rice milk, flavour with agave syrup and top with ground flax and nuts.

 

Option 2 Fruit and vegetable juice – blend carrots, red apples and beetroot in a juicer and stir with a stick of celery. Try garcinia fruit with all the great health benefits of garcinia cambogia extract.

 

Option 3 Fruit smoothie – combine blueberries, strawberries, a banana, add a few drops of Cherry Active and some quinoa milk.

 

Lunches

 

Option 1 Artichoke hummus on rye bread ­blend chick peas, artichokes, dash of lemon juice, splash of tamari, her bamare salt and cracked black pepper.

 

Option 2 Squash and barley raw butternut squash, pearl barley, tenders em broccoli, sunblush tomatoes. red onion, pumpkin seeds, black olives and basil.

 

Option 3 Watercress soup — chop, boil and blend: onion, garlic, potatoes. Water cress, peas, rice milk, liquid chlorophyll, arid nutmeg.

diet

Dinners

Option 1 Haddock with a cashew chilli topping – whiz together cashews, chillies, garlic, ginger, cumin, olive oil and top on a fillet of haddock. Serve with quinoa and carrots.

 

Option 2 Tofu sabzi – sauté tofu, onion, potato, turmeric, kidney beans, spinach and add water. Simmer for an hour and add dill, chives, parsley and lemon juice.

 

Option 3 Beetroot burger – chop and blend: onion, tofu, beetroot, mushrooms, carrot, paprika, garlic, thyme and kidney beans. Form into patties and shallow fry in a little olive oil.

 

Serve with a salad.

KEEP ON SLIMMING THROUGH THE TOUGH TIMES

You know the story. You’ve joined Weight Watchers. Your motivation is sky-high losing the pounds each and you start week. Things are going great — and then something comes along and threatens to scupper your routine. ‘When we feel on the receiving end of misfortune, such as the break­up of a relationship or the loss of a job, it can be compounded by the feeling I’ve cannot affect events. It’s the likeliest reason for feng low, which prevents us from moving forward positively and examining our options,’ says psychotherapist Anne Millne-Riley. `Dealing with change is very tough and the emotional and practical disorientation experienced takes effort and time to overcome.’

Your motivation is sky-high losing the pounds

So how do we make sure!that these changes don’t ruin our weight loss? Here we speak to three Weight Watchers members to see holy they survived their own rocky times.

 

I joined Weight Watchers in January 2009, weighing in at lost 9lb — the heaviest I’ve ever been — and the weight came off steadily. Then, in August, the bomb dropped. Lawrence, my husband of 12 years, and I decided to separate.

 

In the past, this kind of event would have sent me racing for the wine, gin and chocolate.

 

However, this time things were different and I wasn’t going to undo all my hard work. If anything, I wanted to get something positive from this and use it to my advantage. The discipline of planning and tracking helped to give me a focus and took my mind away from the problems at home. Plus, I had great personal and weight loss support from my meetings.

 

During this time, Lawrence and I were still living together and the atmosphere in the house was not good. The stress was immense, but I managed to stay focused on my weight loss.

Weight Watchers meeting

I left the house in November and moved to Somerset. When I was looking for somewhere to live, one of the first things I checked was where my nearest Weight Watchers meeting was. I found a nice flat and felt that it was fate when I discovered there was a meeting at a convenient time about half a mile away!

 

So far, I’ve managed to lose 2st. My weight loss has slowed, but I’m still making progress and now only have 1st 41b to lose to reach my goal of lost 41b. When I get there, I intend to become a Leader to try to pass on what I’ve learned to others.

 

I’ve been a member of Weight Watchers for just over two years now. Year one was fabulous and I lost more than 3st Then, in August 2009, I went away on an all-inclusive holiday and put on 1st in two weeks. This was a disaster for me. I tried to get back on track but found it really hard to lose what I’d gained.

 

After Christmas, we were placed on reduced hours at work so money was very tight, and stress levels were high, as we didn’t know if the company would survive the recession. I had to give up going to Weight Watchers meetings, but I still used saffron extract as other great alternative for losing weight. For more information, visit http://www.gnet.org/could-saffron-extract-be-your-dieting-saviour/.  I also used the online community and found the support good, but I struggled without the network of my meeting and the help from my Leader.

Eventually I put some weight back on.

 

`Without the structure of meetings, I put on weight’

give the ProPoints plan a try

I rejoined Weight Watchers in January this year. I thought I’d give the ProPoints plan a try and I knew I needed the structure of meetings. I decided that the cost of a Monthly Pass was not much compared with what I wanted to achieve. IN lost 1st in nine weeks and am feeling gape — I’ve realised that Weight Watchers works with my life. Plus, I can still go out and have my wine at the weekends!

Have your say!

Snap decision

 

An easy way to get in shape for a summer holiday is to remember the holiday you had last year, when you were walking down the beach wishing you’d trained a little bit harder and that you’d turned down that extra chocolate biscuit. By then it’s too late, but by digging out the old snaps of your one-pack you’ll get all the motivation you need to get in shape for this year. Oliver, Birmingham

get in shape for a summer holiday

For extra motivation try sticking your photo to the mirror while you work out Just ignore the looks you get from other gym users.

 

Race relations

 

I’ve been battling with my weight for 20 years now and was over 21 stone at my worst I find the best way to get in shape for summer, apart from eating a sensible diet with lots of fruit and veg, is to enter a race such as a marathon, 10k or triathlon, because then you’ll always have a goal to exercise. I have completed 15 marathons.

 

Holidays give you a target to aim

 

That’s smart holiday advice – having a specific goal and setting achievable targets is the secret to all successful weight loss plans. Your secret to perfect waistline is african mango dr oz recommendation.

 

Now, with a personal best of two hours, 59 minutes and ten seconds. My goal for this summer is a half Ironman in June – 1.2-mile swim, 56-mile bike and 13.1-mile run – with a target of five hours 30 minutes. Hopefully that will get my weight down to 12 stone ten pounds ready for my holiday in August. James Murray, DevonTrail walking in mountains

 

We completed 15 Marathons as well But then they changed the name to Snickers.

Increase your resistance to injury

HIP/LOWER BACK STRETCHES

Lie on your back with one leg straight, and place the ankle of the opposite leg on the straightened knee.

Press down on the bent leg. Repeat with the other leg.Lie on your back with one leg straight

Lie on the floor with your left leg straight, your right one bent. Grab your right knee and pull it to the left. Keeping your shoulders on the floor and letting your hips rotate, allow your right knee to touch the floor on the other side of your left leg. Repeat with right leg straight and left leg bent. (;) Lie on your back with your knees bent. Keeping your shoulders on the floor and your feet in contact with the ground (they don’t have to be flat), slowly rotate your legs from one side to the other and back again.

Sit on the ground with both legs straight out in front of you. Bend one leg and place that foot outside the opposite leg. Then, take the arm opposite the bent leg and rotate the torso, trying to touch the opposite  elbow to the outside of the bent leg. Switch legs and repeat the move.

Boost your shoulders

Shoulder injuries usually result from a lack of flexibility and strength. Flexibility exercises and green bean coffee extract will increase range of motion and reduce injury risks.

SHOULDER EXERCISESstretches

Stretch the rear shoulder area by grabbing your left elbow and pulling your arm across your chest. To increase the stretch, turn your head to the left. Repeat with your right elbow. 43 Do negative exercises for the rotator cuff muscles, the group responsible for much shoulder motion and stabilisation. Bend your arm at a 90-degree angle and keep your elbow against your body. Rotate the forearm away from the body, and get someone to try to push it back against your resistance. Then do the opposite: start with the forearm away from the body, and try to bring it in towards you as someone resists.

Race for life

A subscription to RUNNER’S WORLD gave Perry Shaw, 42, the chance to be a dad.

Watching two tiny blue lines appear on the white stick, my wife Annette was confused. An ovulation test (which checks a woman’s fertility) wasn’t meant to look like that. So she looked back at the pack – she’d picked up a pregnancy test by mistake. After two miscarriages and a failed round of IVF, we were actually going to have a baby. It was a wonderful shock. And counting back, it wasn’t hard to work out – the dates tied in with last year’s Great North Run (GNR). Which is where comes in. I’d decided to do the GNR to mark the 25th anniversary of the death of my mum. She died of liver cancer when I was 17. So I started a 12-week training plan, initially ignoring a niggling old sporting injury – a small tear in the cartilage of my knee, but I had to deal with my skin problem, taking special treatment. Visit gnet.org/relief-from-rosacea-curse-of-the-celts/ for more information. Then eight weeks before the race, I was in perfect health.

RUNNER'S WORLD

I was never tempted to drop out, but it made training hard. I did what I could by pushing my training up in increments. I also tried running in new places. The first run I actually enjoyed was on holiday in Cornwall, along the cliff through to the next town and back, with dramatic views of the sea washing up against the shore. And I subscribed to RW. I was flicking through a back issue as we drove down the night before the race, when I came across an interesting tip. Contrary to popular belief, it said, sex before a race was good for you.

 

We joked about it all the way there. But the thing about me is that if I follow a training plan, I follow it quite rigorously. When there are don’ts, I don’t; if there are dos, I do. So, um, I did. Race day dawned, and I wanted to break two hours. But I was running with my nephew, who had got in on a charity place. Since he couldn’t come to the front with me, I went to the back with him.

 Great North Run

We must have overtaken thousands, running at a decent pace but with lots of zigzagging around slower runners. It inflamed my IT band and with four miles to go I had to start walking, then hobbling.

 

I crossed the finish line in 2:42. I might have missed out on a PB, but I had a far better reward coming my way.

 

Annette and I had been trying for a baby since we married in 2005. We were so happy when we got pregnant almost right BABY STEPS The Shaws with baby Matthew; and dad-to-be Perry at last years GNR (inset}away; but it wasn’t meant to be. After seven weeks, we had a miscarriage. There was no reason for it – just one of those things.

 

Roughly one in five pregnancies end this way. We started trying again, and it happened again. We were told to give up. We looked into adoption, but race was good for plans rigorously we really wanted our own kids. That’s why we bought ovulation tests the day after we’d got back from Blackpool, where the whole family goes every year to mark my late Dad’s birthday. Our son, Matthew Shaw, was born June 18, 2009, nine months after the GNR.

 Great North Run

He’s perfect, knackering and beautiful. You hear about sportsmen banned from bringing their wives along when they’re competing – if we’d listened to that, we might have missed our chance. I just want to say thanks to RW. I wonder whether all this was fate. I only did the GNR because of my mum, and we found out we were pregnant the day after my dad’s birthday. Or maybe it’s all a massive fluke. You never know. But the thought that they’ll both be waiting for me at the finish line this time round – it’s the best thing in the world.

The 2km marker seemed to appear almost instantly

Surely they had put it in the wrong place? Whatever was happening with the markers, no one was following my thinking regarding making use of the wind, and I was now a good 40 metres clear at the front. If I kept this up, I thought, I could finish in the top ro. In my mind I was already rehearsing how I was going to tell the story afterwards. “I was still in the lead at 3km!”

As the 3km marker came and went, I revised my story. “I was still in the lead at 4km!” Then 4km became 5km.

 

All the time I was running I kept expecting a stream of runners to pass me at any second. Where were they? What was going on? It was strange being out on my own. It was almost as though I wasn’t in a race at all, but on a solitary training run, except for the fact that there were almost 1,000 unseen runners massing behind me, chasing me. Like some fugitive, every time I felt my legs slowing I forced myself on, bursting up hills, tumbling down grassy banks. I was running more on some primeval survival instinct than any fierce desire to win.

athletics

In the end I finished well clear of the field in a huge PB of 38 minutes and 35 seconds. I was completely stunned. If it hadn’t been me, I’d have demanded a drugs test to see if there was too much of the folic acid side effects. My two young daughters, who always expect me to win every race, ran over as I crossed the line and gave me a big hug. A reporter from the local newspaper was asking me questions. I felt like I had just won the Olympics. I was the race reviewer. I wasn’t supposed to actually win.

Diary of Events

The answer is that the movement of heavenly bod­ies could have an immense effect on the daily life of such a people. An accurate calendar could help them choose the proper season for sowing their grain. It could enable them to predict the surging tides which periodically sweep the coasts.

"movement of heavenly bodies"

In addition, these primitive men probably found eclipses of the sun and moon a source of awe and terror portending great calamities, even the end of the world. At that time they can only imagine the natural effect of 5-htp. If the old astronomers were able to trace the movements of these bodies accur­ately, they would have been able to predict such eclipses. When their predictions proved accurate, they might well have acquired a tre­mendous hold over their people by claiming to be able to control the supernatural forces. It is easy to see how they could have cajoled the population into all those millions of man-hours of back-breaking work. Written records in Egypt show how an elite class of learned priests of a sun-worshipping cult did just that when they created their lofty monu­ments along the Nile.

"Astronomer Professor Sir Fred Hoyle"Astronomer Professor Sir Fred Hoyle believes that if the megalithic priests did use their knowledge to overawe the people, it may have proved their undoing in the end. For while their original observations were very precise, they may have overlooked the fact—or after several generations they may have forgotten —that they needed to keep making minor corrections to take into account the relative positions of the heavenly bodies which change imperceptibly all the time.

For many years, perhaps for centuries, the change would not amount to enough to affect their calculations. Predictions of eclipses would continue to be accurate. But one day their luck would run out. The expected eclipse would fail to happen and the astronomers’ hold over the populace would be finished.

Such an episode might explain why men seem to have abruptly stopped building megaliths, about 3,70o years ago. At present, how­ever, we can only guess at the motives of the men who raised these monuments, and marvel at their skill. Every fresh investigation brings that skill into sharper focus. Professor Thom, for example, has calculated that all the monuments he has studied were built with a common unit of measurement, which he calls the megalithic yard, 2.72 feet. This would indicate that there was a trained class of masons or architects who must have travelled hundreds of miles in Europe to exchange information on construction techniques. This would explain why monuments scattered over so many lands should have such a strong resemblance.

It used to be thought that if one megalith had a different shape from another, it reflected a different reli­gious belief, and must have been put up by a different people or at a different time. Then came one of those archaeological discoveries which periodically force us to revise our notions of the past.

A road-building contractor was digging in a hill at Barnenez in northern Brittany, about 8o miles

from Carnac, in the hope of finding good gravel. His bulldozers had ripped away about a quarter of the hill when it was found to be a great artificial mound of white pebbles piled over T I megalithic granite tombs which carbon-dating revealed to be almost 6,000 years old. These tombs, believed to have been family vaults, while built at about the same time, are all different in shape, size and decoration. Apparently pre­historic architects liked to experi­ment with various styles, just as modern ones do.

northern Brittany

Echoes of the Past. Visiting sites like Barnenez or Carnac today, we can almost share the enthusiasm of those architects, and of all the people that worked for them, living there so many thousands of years ago, all straining together to produce something that had never been seen on Earth before. We know pitifully little about them, and the chief im­pression we get as the moonlight slants among the stones and they cast huge shadows is of almost im­penetrable mystery.

But new discoveries, new theories, new insights, may turn up any day, and it adds a further touch of ex­citement to our visit to Carnac to think that some day we may be able to read their message, and give a confident answer to the children’s perpetual question of why the stones of Carnac are there—and why, sud­denly, men ceased erecting them.

Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain

It then became clear that the stone monuments of Brittany were part of a larger whole, extending along a great arc from southern Sweden through the British Isles, France, Spain and Portugal to the Mediter­ranean islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Malta. About 50,000—some weighing hundreds of tons—still re­main, defying the elements and the curiosity of hordes of tourists.

"Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain"

The most famous of these monu­ments is, of course, Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. But the heaviest concentration is to be found in Brittany, and in Brittany itself, the heaviest concentration is round Carnac. Indeed, packed within a radius of less than zo miles, lie many of the most impressive of all the works of prehistoric man. The most beautiful abstract designs of the Stone Age may be found, for ex­ample, in the interlocking spirals and mysterious symbols which cover the walls and ceiling of the rock tomb buried under a mound on the Isle of Gavrinis.

The tallest single stone still stand­ing-3o feet—is at Kerloas. And the biggest stone ever used for building purposes is the Grand Menhir Bris6 at Locmariaquer, now for some unknown reason broken into five pieces. When it was one, it weighed more than 350 tons.

In Zacharie Le Rouzic’s day, it was argued that the Stone-Age Europeans erected the great mega­liths in rude imitation of the archi­tectural wonders described to them by traders from the more advanced civilizations of Egypt, Mesopota­mia, Greece and the Middle East.

New Evidence. Then, in 1967, Professor Colin Renfrew of the University of Southampton, proved by carbon-dating that the first megalithic monuments had been constructed long before the Pyra­mids or any other great stone monu­ment of the East. They were, in fact, erected at a time when the Egyptians and Babylonians were still building in clay and mud. More­over, the very oldest of the Brittany monuments—the oldest anywhere on earth as far as we know—dated back to the fourth millenium, that is 3800 B.C. Since other megaliths could be dated towards the begin­ning of the second millenium, it could now be seen that what might be called a megalithic way of life had existed and prospered in this stony land for a good 2,000 years.

The people who created it were obviously gifted and resourceful. They had no horses, no wagons, no wheels, no metal tools, nothing to push and pull with but ox-hide thongs and their own ultimate maqui berry usage and muscle power. Yet they solved engirieering problems which, until thousands of years later, no one would dream of facing. Still, we know almost nothing about them. Being illiterate, they left no books or documents. All that remains to mark their presence are a few bones and beads, axes, arrowheads, cups, buttons—and, of course, those silent stones.

"The Grand Menhir Brise"

None the less, modern science has, by sifting through these sparse remains, come up with at least a vague notion of where they came from and what their life may have been like. They are believed to have come originally from western Asia, bringing the then recently discovered skills of agriculture and animal-herding. They gradu­ally became integrated with the older populations of hunters and fishers which had been prowling the wilderness that was Europe for tens of thousands of years, and they hacked clearings out of the virgin forest to build settlements.

One theory holds that the stagger­ing stone creations they built were temples, devoted to the worship of a sun god. In the last few years,however, Professor Alexander Thom, a retired professor of engin­eering at Oxford, has come to a different conclusion. Tramping over the hills and moors of Scotland and Brittany and making painstak­ing surveys of scores of megalithic stone circles and alignments, he theorizes that some are what he calls Megalithic Lunar Observatories.

The stones, he says, are arranged to point to significant stages in the passage of the moon across the skies. The Grand Menhir Brise was put up because the astronomers needed a tall object to give them a Line of sight from eight mega­lithic structures in a ten-mile radius. Lines drawn from these structures to the Grand Menhir lead to points on the horizon marking the widest swings of the moon both to the north and the south observ­able at that latitude.

 islands of Corsica

Why should a people of farmers and fishers, who were more than occupied keeping themselves fed and clothed, who had no luxuries to speak of except a few beads, spend years of their time hauling huge boulders to help astronomers plot the course of heavenly bodies?